Question: How Does Microcephaly Affect A Child?

Does microcephaly cause retardation?

Signs and symptoms of microcephaly may include a smaller than normal head circumference that usually remains smaller than normal as the child grows, dwarfism or short stature, delayed motor and speech functions, mental retardation, seizures, facial distortions, hyperactivity, balance and coordination problems, and ….

How do you know if your child has microcephaly?

To diagnose microcephaly after birth, your baby’s provider measures your baby’s head circumference during a physical exam. Head circumference is the distance around your baby’s head. Your baby’s provider then compares your baby’s measurement to that of other babies of the same sex and age.

Is microcephaly hereditary?

In some cases, microcephaly may be caused by inheriting an abnormal gene. Microcephaly is an autosomal recessive gene disorder. Autosomal means that boys and girls are equally affected. Recessive means that 2 copies of the gene, 1 from each parent, are needed to have the condition.

What percentile is considered microcephaly?

Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean for age and sex or roughly less than the 2nd percentile. Conversely, macrocephaly is defined as a head circumference greater than 2 SDs above the mean or greater than the 98th percentile.

Can microcephaly be misdiagnosed?

Recently, microcephaly has usually been misdiagnosed only by ultrasound via measurement of head circumfer- ence (HC). Different literatures use different standards for diagnosis of microcephaly with head circumference.

How common is Macrocephaly?

Benign familial macrocephaly (external hydrocephalus) accounts for about 50% of cases. It is an autosomal dominant condition that is four times more common in boys. Most affected individuals are developmentally normal. Other family members also have large heads.

Can a child with microcephaly be normal?

Some children with microcephaly are both with normal intelligence and have normal developmental milestones, but their heads will always be smaller than normal children for their age and sex. Microcephaly in children is a rare and genetic condition.

What is the life expectancy of a child with microcephaly?

There is no standard life expectancy for microcephalic babies because outcomes depend on so many factors, and the severity of the condition can range from mild to severe. Babies with mild microcephaly may still meet the same milestones like speaking, sitting and walking as a child without the disorder.

How does microcephaly affect the brain?

Severe microcephaly is a more serious, extreme form of this condition where a baby’s head is much smaller than expected. Severe microcephaly can result because a baby’s brain has not developed properly during pregnancy, or the brain started to develop correctly and then was damaged at some point during pregnancy.

At what age is microcephaly diagnosed?

Diagnosis. Early diagnosis of microcephaly can sometimes be made by fetal ultrasound. Ultrasounds have the best diagnosis possibility if they are made at the end of the second trimester, around 28 weeks, or in the third trimester of pregnancy. Often diagnosis is made at birth or at a later stage.

Can microcephaly be normal?

Some children with small heads have normal intelligence. Microcephaly may be caused by problems during a woman’s pregnancy. In some cases, it may be caused by inheriting an abnormal gene. Microcephaly is a lifelong condition that has no cure.

How is microcephaly detected?

Microcephaly may be diagnosed during pregnancy with ultrasound. Microcephaly is most easily diagnosed by ultrasound late in the second trimester or early in the third trimester of pregnancy.